Fire – a good servant and a bad master

Everyone is familiar with the fire which serves us in a number of ways. Fire is not as simple as it seems. It is a rapid chemical process consisting of a number of steps. Fire is defined as a fast combustion process that occurs in the presence of any oxidizing agents. The fire was used by the early humans from the age of the stones.

History and discovery of fire:

  The fire was being used by humans from the primitive times. It was discovered when humans rubbed two stones together and light and heat were produced which was named as fire. That energy was used to cook food and for warming purposes. Discovery of the fire was a major step in the history of humans and it changes the life.


the discovery of fire

Components of fire:

The major substances required for fire production are followed;

  • Oxidizing substance: any substance which is rich in oxygen contents is called oxidizing substance. An oxidizing substance such as oxygen is required for the production of fire.
  • Fuel: a fuel is a substance which is being burned in the presence of oxidizing agents to produce heat. A fuel can be wood or any organic material.
  • Heat: heat energy is needed to produce fire and for the burning of fuel in the presence of oxygen.

Triangle of fire:

Triangle of fire shows three components of fire and their interlinking. From the triangle of fire, we get the information that all three components are necessary for the production of fire. If any one of the components is missing, then fire can not be produced.


The chemical reaction of fire:

There is a fast reaction. It is a chain chemical reaction and the three components react vigorously. It is actually an oxidation reaction in which fuel is burned in the presence of oxygen and energy and fire is produced as a by-product. The process of production of fire is called combustion. Combustion can be incomplete or complete combustion and this depends upon a number of components.


Steps of fire production:

Fire is completely produced in following steps;

  • Ignition: burning of fuel starts.
  • Growth: in this step, the growth of fire takes place with the consumption of more components.
  • Flashover: here the flame completely lights up.
  • Fully developed: the components are completely burned and fuel is completely used. So we say that fire is fully developed.
  • Decay: Now decay of fire starts.


  Flame is the burning part of the fire. It has different colors due to different amounts of components. The blue flame is due to incomplete combustion and the orange flame is due to complete combustion.


Use of fire by early people:

Early humans use fire for the following purposes;

  • Cooking
  • Heating
  • Warming
  • Clearing the lands
  • Roasting
  • Heating bricks
  • Melting metals
  • Indicator of danger

Modern uses of fire:

Nowadays fire is used in modern techniques;

  • Gas burning central heating
  • Cooking and Barbecue
  • Fire is the root process of electricity
  • Landscaping and burning of bushes
  • For boiling water
  • For metal extraction

Dangers of fire:

Along with its advantages, fire also has many dangers. Some of them are mentioned below;

  • Fire burns our clothes and skin.
  • Fire burns our houses and buildings.
  • Forest fire kills wild animals and plants.
  • A fire can spread quickly.
  • Fire can cause a lot of deaths.


Precautionary measures against fire:

  • Never leave your stove burning while you are away.
  • Never throw away burning cigarettes.
  • Install fire alarms.
  • Make an emergency exit.



Soft drinks which are not really soft

A soft drink which is soft by name but is very hard by its characteristics and effects. Soft drinks are composed of carbon dioxide dissolved in water, a sweetener and artificial flavors. Popular soft drinks include coca cola, Marinda, Pepsi e.t.c.


Soft drinks are made by dissolving different ingredients in carbonated water. They can be made in homes or factories. Some major producers of soft drinks are coca cola and Pepsi companies. The sweetener can be sugar or sucrose. Ingredients can be added in dry, fresh or syrup form.  Alcohol is also present in soft drinks in less amount. Some soft drinks can have more amounts of alcohol.  Soft drinks may also contain caffeine.

We love drinking soft drinks and ignore their adverse effects on our health. One of the major health problem caused by soft drinks is obesity. Due to sweet contents and carbon dioxide, soft drinks leads to obesity and weight problems and noticeable changes can occur in weight by changes in a number of soft drinks consumed. Doctors suggest avoiding soft drinks consumption to obsessed people.

Soft drinks also cause dental problems due to the presence of sweetener and carbon dioxide in them. They cause cavities in teeth.  Soft drinks also increase potassium levels in our body. the increased potassium level in the body is called hypokalemia.

Strict precautions should be taken to avoid soft drinks. high prices should be set for the soft drinks. Bans should be applied on soft drinks. At the end, I want to say that excess of everything is harmful and we should consume the soft drink in minimum quantity.

A Look Into Mangoes

Everyone is familiar with mango, the king of fruits, used by every single man in the world in summers. It is a juicy fruit cultivated mainly in South Asia. Mango is the national fruit of Pakistan and India and is the national tree of Bangladesh. It belongs to the genus Mangifera of the same family to which cashew belongs.

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mango fruit

The mango tree is a tall tree with a crown at the top. It grows in tropical climates. Mango tree acts as an ornamental tree in full flower and it looks beautiful. Mango is being cultivated mostly in South Asia and is exported to other parts of the world. It also contributes to our environment by releasing oxygen and absorbing carbon dioxide.

Nutrients present in mango:

Mango is free of fats, sodium, and cholesterol and contains a variety of vitamins and minerals. So mangoes have a high nutritional value.important vitamins present in mangoes are vitamin A, vitamin B6, and vitamin C.


Chemistry of mangoes:

Mangoes are the rich source of vitamins and minerals. The vitamins and minerals are also chemical substances and have some beneficial effects for humans. The vitamins present in mangoes are;

  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin B1
  • Vitamin B2
  • Vitamin B5
  • Vitamin B6
  • Vitamin B9
  • Vitamin C
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin PP

The mineral constituents of mangoes are as follows;

  • Iron
  • Potassium
  • Calcium
  • Magnesium
  • Manganese
  • Copper
  • Sodium
  • Phosphorus
  • Zinc

Uses of mango in daily life:

Mango rocks our dining table. We use mangoes in various ways in our diet. We drink mango shakes and juices, eat raw mangoes and mango cakes. We love mango ice creams and puddings.

Chemistry of Chia seeds

Today I was drinking a refreshing drink in which chia seeds were added. At that moment, I got the point that I should write about the chemistry of Chia seeds. Chai seeds are known as “Tuk malanga” in the Urdu language. The plant from which we obtain Chia seeds is known as Salvia hispanica. This plant belongs to family Lamiaceae. The plant is commonly called as chia. Chia plant is cultivated in some parts of South America, Mexico, and the United States. Cultivation of Chia plant is very easy because it does not require much space and length

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Chia seeds are small black colored seeds found in almost every kitchen. They are very beneficial for mankind. The reasons due to which Chia plant rocks our garden and lives are following.

  • It is a flowering plant so it enhances the beauty of our garden.
  • Chia seeds are a source of many important fatty acids.
  • Chia seeds have one of the richest antioxidants of nature. The antioxidant present in them is quercetin. Antioxidants are the substances that prevent spreading of cancer.

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  • Chia seeds are also good for skin and digestive health due to the presence of quercetin.
  • It boosts our energy and treats diabetes and heart diseases.
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    So we should include chia seeds in our diet for good health. They keep almost every part of our body healthy and fit.


All about chemistry

 Chemistry is a physical science in which we study about discovery, occurrence, structure, composition, and properties of matter and contribution of that matter into the world. The science of chemistry was being studied since the era of Jabir-bin-Haiyan, who wrote “Alchemy” and is known as the father of chemistry. Since then we are being blessed with a lot of wonders of chemistry daily. Many people found chemistry as a difficult and boring subject but in actual chemistry is a fun-loving science if we give it a try. Chemistry plays a keen role in our lives and the environment. Everything in this universe is made up of atoms and chemical substances even the cosmetics we use have their own chemistry. In my blog, I will share my knowledge about chemistry and the interesting facts about chemistry that we encounter daily. You will get to know about the chemistry you uses at homes, offices and other places and the topics about which you will love to know.

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